Foundation 9 Entertainment
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Background: Foundation 9 Entertainment (F9E) was once the world's largest association of independent developers. The company was formed in 2005 through the merger of Backbone Entertainment and The Collective, and later acquired some other studios. The F9E logo was never seen in games outside of being featured in bylines. The studios the company once owned included:
- Sumo Digital (spun off in 2014)
- Pipeworks Software (spun off)
- Griptonite Games (with Fizz Factor and Amaze Entertainment merged into), sold and merged into Glu Mobile in 2011.
- ImaginEngine, closed in October 2012.
- KnowWonder, formerly owned by Amaze in early 2000's.
- Backbone Entertainment (with Backbone Emeryville and Backbone Vancouver), laid off in 2012 and subsequently closed.
- Circle of Confusion (not a game developer)
- Double Helix Games (formed through the merger of Shiny Entertainment and The Collective), bought by Amazon.com in February 2014.